(Though Crater Lake is the deepest lake in the United States and deeper than Lake Superior, Crater Lake's elevation is higher and consequently its deepest point is 4,229 feet (1,289 m) above sea level. [24] Summer surface temperatures in the lake appeared to have increased by about 4.5 Â°F (2.5 Â°C) between 1979 and 2007, compared with an approximately 2.7 Â°F (1.5 Â°C) increase in the surrounding average air temperature. Storms that claimed multiple ships include the Mataafa Storm in 1905 and the Great Lakes Storm of 1913. [23], Historic low water Live Science is part of Future US Inc, an international media group and leading digital publisher. They used bows and arrows, paddled dugout canoes, fished, hunted, mined copper for tools and weapons, and established trading networks. The largest island in Lake Superior is Isle Royale in the state of Michigan. Lake whitefish are prized for their delicate fillets and, like ciscoes, are lower on the food chain than lake trout and consequentially contain fewer bioaccumulative toxins. The numbers for the world’s largest … Lake Superior has an average underwater visibility of 27 feet (8.2 meters). Lake Superior is 350 miles (563 km) long (east to west), and its greatest width is 160 miles (258 km) from north to south. The average underwater visibility of Lake Superior is about 8 metres or 27 feet, making it the cleanest and clearest of the Great Lakes. Isle Royale contains several lakes, some of which also contain islands. The normal low-water mark is 0.33 feet (0.10 m) below datum (601.1 ft or 183.2 m). In the summer of 1985, Lake Superior reached its highest recorded level at 2.33 feet (0.71 m) above datum. Winds and resulting waves keep Lake Michigan from freezing over, but it has been 90 percent froz… They are believed to be the direct ancestors of the Ojibwe and Cree.[37]. The lake's name comes from the French word lac supérieur, which means "upper lake." The lake's average surface elevation is 600 feet (183 m)[8][17] above sea level. By the early 1600s, the Ojibway people had established a village of several thousand on Madeline Island. During most winters the lake is 40 to 95 percent covered with ice. [7][8][9] Lake Superior contains 2,900 cubic miles (12,100 km³) of water. The regulating structure is known as the Compensating Works and is operated according to a regulation plan known as Plan 1977-A. Lake Superior boasts extremely clear water, with an average underwater visibility of 27 feet (8.2 m). [46], More than 80 species of fish have been found in Lake Superior. The shoreline measures 2,726 miles (4,385 km), according to the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The average water temperature is 40 F (4.4 C) — lower than the other Great Lakes, which are farther south. Future US, Inc. 11 West 42nd Street, 15th Floor, Kim Ann Zimmermann - Live Science Contributor Lake Baikal in southern Russia is the world's deepest lake. The 729-foot ore freighter Edmund Fitzgerald sank in a roiling Lake Superior on Nov. 10, 1975. There is enough water in Lake Superior to cover all of North and South America with water one foot deep. 5. This shoal rises vertically from Lake Superior’s 280 foot bottom, and lies only three feet beneath the water. 48 feet long (15 m) Crater Lake is the deepest lake in the … At the end of your trek, nothing is more beautiful than watching a Lake Superior sunset from nearly any spot along the national lakeshore. Additional reporting by Alina Bradford, Live Science Contributor. Deepest Lake in North America: Great Slave Lake. The southern shore of Lake Superior between Grand Marais, Michigan, and Whitefish Point is known as the "Graveyard of the Great Lakes" and more ships have been lost around the Whitefish Point area than any other part of Lake Superior. With a total water surface of 82,000 sq km or 31,700 sq mi and an average depth of 147 meters or 483 feet, many sea vessels succumb to its ever-changing currents. Another culture known as the Terminal Woodland Indians (c. AD 900–1650) has been found. During the nine-month period of October 1925 to June 1926, water levels ranged from 1.58 feet (0.48 m) to 0.33 feet (0.10 m) below Chart Datum. New York, ... 12. Here is a video of a research team sending a probe down to one of the Deepest Points of Lake Superior: The lake's water level fluctuates from month to month, with the highest lake levels in October and November. The hills and mountains that border the lake hold moisture and fog, particularly in the fall. But by 1821, with competition harming the profits of both, the companies merged under the Hudson's Bay Company name. Wreckage of SS Cyprus—a 420-foot (130 m) ore carrier that sank on October 11, 1907, during a Lake Superior storm in 77 fathoms (460 ft or 140 m) of water—was located in August 2007. They are known as the Plano, and they used stone-tipped spears to hunt caribou on the northwestern side of Lake Minong. 7. Marie. and Michigan (U.S.). It has a maximum length of 350 statute miles (560 km; 300 nmi) and maximum breadth of 160 statute miles (257 km; 139 nmi). Lake Superior has its origins in the North American Mid-Continent Rift of 1.1 to 1.2 billion years ago, which produced a huge plume of hot mantle where the present lake sits. Evidence of this culture can be found at the eastern and western ends of the Canadian shore. Ice covers rocks on Lake Superior. [23] In the summer of 2007 monthly historic lows were set; August at 0.66 feet (0.20 m), September at 0.58 feet (0.18 m). [8] Its average depth is 80.5 fathoms (483 ft; 147 m) with a maximum depth of 222.17 fathoms (1,333 ft; 406 m). The North West Company built forts on Lake Superior at Grand Portage, Fort William, Nipigon, the Pic River, the Michipicoten River, and Sault Ste. [23] The winter of 1986 set new high-water records through the winter and spring months (January to June), ranging from 1.33 feet (0.41 m) to 1.833 feet (0.559 m) above Chart Datum. [23] Additionally, the entire first half of the year (January to June) included record low months. The man claimed that a creature attacked and attempted to constrict him. Lake whitefish live in deep waters mainly along Lake Superior's South Shore. Superior was a major mode of transportation for the fur industry and other trading activities during the Colonial period and remains a shipping hub today. The following tables can be sorted by column. Lake Superior got its name from having the most volume of water among the five lakes in the area, therefore being "Superior". Because of varying depths and unpredictable weather, Lake Superior and the other Great Lakes have been prone to maritime accidents. State Journal archives SS Edmund Fitzgerald. [12] Superior is the farthest north and west of the Great Lakes chain, and the highest in elevation, draining through the St. Mary's River into Lake Huron. One billion years in the making, Lake Superior's majesty, tranquility, and fury are all on display in Bayfield County. The deepest lake in North America is the Great … As of 2017, there were only 483 individuals in the wild across North America, according to the International Union for Conservation of Nature. Lake Superior is fed by more than 200 rivers, including the Nipigon River, the St. Louis River, the Pigeon River, the Pic River, the White River, the Michipicoten River, the Bois Brule River and the Kaministiquia River. [30] The water surface's slow reaction to temperature changes, seasonally ranging between 32 and 55 Â°F (0–13 Â°C) around 1970,[31] helps to moderate surrounding air temperatures in the summer (cooler with frequent sea breeze formations) and winter, and creates lake effect snow in colder months. Twice per year, however, the water column reaches a uniform temperature of 39 Â°F (4 Â°C) from top to bottom, and the lake waters thoroughly mix. Lake Superior's size reduces the severity of the seasons of its humid continental climate (more typically seen in locations like Nova Scotia). [a] The shoreline of the lake stretches 2,726 miles (4,387 km) (including islands). They were Algonkian people who hunted, fished and gathered berries. Shipping was slow to arrive at Lake Superior in the 19th century. Marie, Michigan, and Sault Ste. But Lake Superior's water is cold enough year-round to inhibit bacterial growth, and bodies tend to sink and never resurface. Lake Superior empties into Lake Huron via the St. Marys River and the Soo Locks. Lake Superior is the largest freshwater lake in the world by surface area, and the third largest by volume. Amethyst formed in some of the cavities created by the Midcontinent Rift and there are several amethyst mines in the Thunder Bay area.[35]. The Lake Superior region is also home to many common native plant species, including Michigan's state tree, the white pine, and Flowering Rush, an aquatic plant that grows along the shoreline. Pitz.[43]. This is due to their lower latitudes and large depths. Water temperatures on Lake Michigan make it to the 60s in July and August and can sometimes make it into the 70s when air temperatures have been in the 90s for a number of continuous days.The water of Lake Michigan has an unusual circulatory pattern — it resembles the traffic flow in a suburban cul-de-sac — and moves very slowly. One of the most well-known incidents occurred on November 10, 1975, when the Edmund Fitzgerald, a large cargo ship carrying iron ore, encountered a severe storm that killed the ship's 29 crew members. [17][18], Annual storms on Lake Superior regularly feature wave heights of over 20 feet (6 m). The region surrounding the lake has proved to be rich in minerals, with copper, iron, silver, gold and nickel the most frequently mined. They soon became the dominant Native American nation in the region: they forced out the Sioux and Fox and won a victory against the Iroquois west of Sault Ste. There was a problem. The Objibways said that the lake was protected by Nanabijou, Spirit of the Deep Sea Water, according to the University of Wisconsin. In 1985, scientists using a submersible vessel descended for the first time to the deepest part of Lake Superior (-1,332 ft./-405 m), near the Pictured Rocks National Lakeshore in Michigan waters. The wreck was immortalized by Gordon Lightfoot in his ballad "The Wreck of the Edmund Fitzgerald". Overall, the Great Lakes reached a 91 percent ice cover that year, which is the most the lakes have frozen since 1979. The greatest and biggest of all the Great Lakes is Lake Superior. The mountains steadily eroded, depositing layers of sediments that compacted and became limestone, dolomite, taconite and the shale at Kakabeka Falls. Marie in 1662. Lake Superior's volume is so large that it could contain all the other Great Lakes plus three additional lakes the size of Lake Erie. The Soo Locks enable ships to bypass the rapids and to overcome the 25-foot (8 m) height difference between Lakes Superior and Huron. Lake Superior has been at its modern elevation for only about 2,000 years, when elevations of Lake Michigan and Lake Huron dropped, creating a rapids at Sault Ste. Receive news and offers from our other brands? Lake Superior drains into Lake Huron via the St. Marys River. Until approximately 1887, the natural hydraulic conveyance through the St. Marys River rapids determined the outflow from Lake Superior. 8, The average elevation of Lake Superior is about 602 feet above sea level. [31] Normally, bacteria decaying a sunken body will bloat it with gas, causing it to float to the surface after a few days. Accidental introductions have occurred in part by the removal of natural barriers to navigation between the Great Lakes. There are 78 different species of fish that call the big lake home. Two recent consecutive winters (2013–2014 and 2014–2015) brought unusually high ice coverage to the Great Lakes, and on March 6, 2014, overall ice coverage peaked at 92.5%, the second-highest in recorded history. It has a mean surface elevation of 600 feet (180 metres) above sea level and a maximum depth of 1,332 feet (406 metres). The larger cities on Lake Superior include the twin ports of Duluth, Minnesota and Superior, Wisconsin; Thunder Bay, Ontario; Marquette, Michigan; and the twin cities of Sault Ste. [citation needed] This variation in temperature makes the lake seasonally stratigraphic. Lake Superior is a major shipping hub. Henry Wadsworth Longfellow wrote the name as "Gitche Gumee" in the poem The Song of Hiawatha, as did Gordon Lightfoot in his song "The Wreck of the Edmund Fitzgerald". It may relate to anthropogenic alternations to the regional nitrogen cycle, but researchers are still unsure of the causes of this change to the lake's ecology. Stony debris and sediments, and eventually a great lake, not an ocean, filled the deep depression that had been left on the land. Magma was injected between layers of sedimentary rock, forming diabase sills. How Deep is Crater Lake? If trends continue, Lake Superior, which freezes over completely once every 20 years, could routinely be ice-free by 2040. [23], According to a study by professors at the University of Minnesota Duluth, Lake Superior may have warmed faster than its surrounding area. A ship approaches the Duluth Pier Lighthouse. Today, tourism is another significant industry: the sparsely populated Lake Superior country, with its rugged shorelines and wilderness, attracts vacationers and adventurers. Many towns around the lake are current or former mining areas, or engaged in processing or shipping. [21] Water levels recovered within a few days. Office of Oceanic and Atmospheric Research, Twin Cities Pioneer Press: ‘Spectacularly Intact’ 1897 Shipwreck Discovered in Lake Superior, The Travel Channel: The Great Lakes Video, EPA: Physical Features of the Great Lakes, The best Lego sets for alien, sci-fi, space fans and more, 20 of the worst epidemics and pandemics in history, Catch the full moon (and a penumbral eclipse) on Monday, Adorable monkeys caught commiting grisly act of cannibalism, Megalodon nurseries reveal world’s largest shark had a soft side. Over 300 streams and rivers empty into Lake Superior. [13], The first French explorers approaching the great inland sea by way of the Ottawa River and Lake Huron in the 17th century referred to their discovery as le lac supérieur (the upper lake, i.e. How deep is Lake Superior? Like all of the Great Lakes, Lake Superior is prone to lake effect snow, but the weather is generally moderate, with warmer temperatures than inland throughout the year. The first people came to the Lake Superior region 10,000 years ago after the retreat of the glaciers in the last Ice Age. Underwater visibility in some spots reaches 30 meters. By 1921, development in support of transportation and hydroelectric power resulted in gates, locks, power canals and other control structures completely spanning St. Marys rapids. The name Superior refers to its size and also designates the lake's position as the northernmost of all the Great Lakes. The land contours familiar today were carved by the advance and retreat of the ice sheet. You will receive a verification email shortly. Marie, Ontario. The deepest point in Lake Superior (about 40 miles north of Munising, Michigan) is 1,300 feet (400 meters) below the surface. [12], Largest of the Great Lakes of North America, International Lake Superior Board of Control, Porcupine Mountains Wilderness State Park, Great Storms of the North American Great Lakes, List of shipwrecks of western Lake Superior, Great Recycling and Northern Development Canal, "Global Land One-Kilometer Base Elevation (GLOBE) v.1", "Tunnel Valleys, Glacial Surges, and Subglacial Hydrology of the Superior Lobe, Minnesota", "Great Lakes: Basic Information: Physical Facts", Michigan Department of Environmental Quality, "Superior Pursuit: Facts About the Greatest Great Lake", "Global Warming Is Shrinking the Great Lakes", "Lake Superior Warming Faster than Surrounding Climate", "Extensive Great Lakes Ice Coverage to Limit Severe Weather, Pose Challenges to Shipping Industry", "After Achieving 95 Percent Coverage, Lake Superior's Ice Breaking Up", "Environmental Climatology of Lake Superior", "NOAA Technical Memorandum ERL GLERL-29: Evaporation from Lake Superior", Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory, "Ontario Amethyst: Ontario's Mineral Emblem", "Century-Old Shipwreck Discovered: Ore Carrier Went Down in Lake Superior on Its Second Voyage", "Increasing Stoichiometric Imbalance in North America's Largest Lake: Nitrification in Lake Superior", "Great Lakes Sensitivity to Climatic Forcing: Hydrological Models", "Rockin' the Rift, The Billion-Year-Old Split that Made Us", Lake Superior NOAA nautical chart #14961 online, Parks Canada - Lake Superior National Marine Conservation Area, Conference of Great Lakes and St. Lawrence Governors and Premiers, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Lake_Superior&oldid=991606126, Articles with dead external links from February 2020, Articles with permanently dead external links, Articles with incomplete citations from February 2020, Articles using infobox body of water without alt, Articles using infobox body of water without alt bathymetry, Articles with unsourced statements from April 2013, Wikipedia articles with WorldCat-VIAF identifiers, Srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, 1,729 mi (2,783 km) plus 997 mi (1,605 km) for islands, This page was last edited on 30 November 2020, at 22:54. Image source: http://www.glerl.noaa.gov/pr/ourlakes/background.html It is an estimated 5,387 feet deep (1,642 meters), and its bottom is approximately 3,893 feet (1,187 meters) below sea level. The low water was a continuation of the dropping lake levels from the previous year, 1925, which set low-water records for October through December. Sandstone cliffs, beaches, sand dunes, waterfalls, inland lakes, deep forest, and wild shoreline beckon you to visit Pictured Rocks National Lakeshore. It takes almost 200 years for the lake to refill with new water, according to the University of Wisconsin. In addition, many fish species have been either intentionally or accidentally introduced to Lake Superior: Atlantic salmon, brown trout, carp, chinook salmon, coho salmon, freshwater drum, pink salmon, rainbow smelt, rainbow trout, round goby, ruffe, sea lamprey and white perch. Michiganders sure are lucky to live amongst so much beauty. Marie. It was during the Penokean orogeny, part of the process that created the Great Lakes Tectonic Zone, that many valuable metals were deposited. In the most recent geological history, during the Wisconsin glaciation 10,000 years ago, ice covered the region at a thickness of 1.25 miles (2 km). French explorers, including Samuel de Champlain (circa 1567-1635) and his scout, Étienne Brûlé (circa 1592-1632), arrived in the mid-1600s, according to the Canadian Museum of History. Lake Superior's water level was at a new record low in September 2007, slightly less than the previous record low in 1926. [34] The lake lies in this long-extinct Mesoproterozoic rift valley, the Midcontinent Rift. There are rapids at the river's upper (Lake Superior) end, where the river bed has a relatively steep gradient. It has an Average Depth of 483 ft (147 m) deep. [45] Joe MacInnis reported that in July 1994, explorer Frederick Shannon's Expedition 94 to the wreck of Edmund Fitzgerald discovered a man's body near the port side of her pilothouse, not far from the open door, "fully clothed, wearing an orange life jacket, and lying face down in the sediment". Lake Superior's Deepest Point is 1,333 ft (406 m) deep! The Duluth Ship Canal is an artificial canal cut through Minnesota Point, providing direct access to Duluth harbor from Lake Superior.Begun privately in 1871, it was put under federal supervision and maintenance several years later. Lava erupted from the rift and formed the black basalt rock of Michipicoten Island, Black Bay Peninsula, and St. Ignace Island. The moon rises at sunset at Split Rock Lighthouse, on the North Shore of Lake Superior in Minnesota. Lake Superior is home to about 80 species of fish, including carp and varieties of trout, salmon and perch. In 1918 the last warships to sink in the Great Lakes, French minesweepers Inkerman and Cerisoles, vanished in a Lake Superior storm, perhaps upon striking the uncharted danger of the Superior Shoal in an otherwise deep part of the lake. Less winter ice cover allows more solar radiation to penetrate and warm the water. Lake Superior first took shape about 1.2 billion years ago as a result of the North American Mid-Continent Rift, which carved an arc-shaped scar stretching from Kansas through Minnesota. With 78 crewmembers dead, their sinking marked the largest loss of life on Lake Superior to date. Water levels, including diversions of water from the Hudson Bay watershed, are regulated by the International Lake Superior Board of Control, which was established in 1914 by the International Joint Commission. That number becomes 88 by including all fish species found in the lake, its estuaries and associated wetlands. The increase in the lake's surface temperature may be related to the decreasing ice cover. The retreat left gravel, sand, clay and boulder deposits. [36] Without the immense weight of the ice, the land rebounded, and a drainage outlet formed at Sault Ste. How Big & Deep is Lake Superior? To reach its deepest point, you'd need to descend 1,276 feet – about the distance of a ride down from the top floor of Chicago's 108-story Willis Tower. During the Precambrian (between 4.5 billion and 540 million years ago) magma forcing its way to the surface created the intrusive granites of the Canadian Shield. It called this because it is north of Lake Huron, which was discovered first by Brûlé. Duluth's Hawk Ridge, which is on the lake's north shore, hosts as many as 10,000 migrating birds of prey each day during the fall migration season. [33] These ancient granites can be seen on the North Shore today. The lake’s drainage basin is 49,300 square miles (127,700 square km), exclusive of its surface area of 31,700 square miles (82,100 square km). [14] The 1878 dictionary by Father Frederic Baraga, the first one written for the Ojibway language, gives the Ojibwe name as Otchipwe-kitchi-gami (a transcription of Ojibwe Gichigami). Lake Superior is a fresh water lake, 1.333 feet deep in certain places. The first people came to the Lake Superior region 10,000 years ago after the retreat of the glaciers in the last Ice Age. The lake was also called Lac Tracy (for Alexandre de Prouville de Tracy) by 17th century Jesuit missionaries. Lake Superior's basin is home to nearly 60 orchid species. The deepest part of Lake Superior is 1,332 feet or 406 meters deep. The deepest point in Lake Superior is 1,300 feet (400 meters) below the surface, making a complete freeze a rarity. June and July are calm months, while October and November are prone to storms. As with many lakes, Lake Superior is home to many species of birds, including varieties of hawks, loons, owls and woodpeckers. The southern shores of Lake Superior boasts Pictured Rocks, a 42 mile stretch of gorgeous, multicolored sandstone cliffs with waterfalls and caves galore. At the mouth of the Michipicoten River, nine layers of encampments have been discovered. By the mid-18th century, the Ojibwe occupied all of Lake Superior's shores.[38]. The lake is about 160 miles (257 kilometers) wide and about 350 miles (563 km) long. Lightfoot sings that "The lake, it is said, never gives up her dead". Lake Baikal is also the world's largest freshwater lake in terms of volume. LAKE SUPERIOR IS BY FAR THE BIGGEST AND DEEPEST. Lake Superior is the largest of the Great Lakes of North America, the world's largest freshwater lake by surface area, and the third largest freshwater lake by volume. above Lake Huron). The deepest point in Lake Superior is 1,300 feet (400 meters) below the surface, making a complete freeze a … It has a surface area of 31,700 square miles (82,100 square km) and water volume of 2,900 cubic miles (12,100 cubic km). It has an average depth of 483 feet with the deepest depth can go as far as 1,332 feet. Basin depth is 8-foot minimum entry and main basin: 5-foot depth at dock and ramp ends. The Laurel people (c. 500 BC to AD 500) developed seine net fishing, evidence being found at rivers around Superior such as the Pic and Michipicoten. [27] Lake Superior's ice coverage further beat 2014's record in 2019, reaching 95% coverage.[28]. Species native to the lake include: banded killifish, bloater, brook trout, burbot, cisco, lake sturgeon, lake trout, lake whitefish, longnose sucker, muskellunge, northern pike, pumpkinseed, rock bass, round whitefish, smallmouth bass, walleye, white sucker and yellow perch. Fifty-one species of fish (native and non-native) reproduce in Lake Superior. This feature makes the lake dimictic. They are still much lower than levels considered dangerous to human health; but this steady, long-term rise is an unusual record of environmental nitrogen buildup. The Ojibwe name for the lake is gichi-gami (pronounced gitchi-gami or kitchi-gami in different dialects),[13] meaning "great sea". It is shared by the Canadian province of Ontario to the north, the U.S. state of Minnesota to the west, and Wisconsin and the Upper Peninsula of Michigan to the south. Located on the borders of the United States and Canada, Lake Superior spreads around the states of Michigan, Minnesota, and Wisconsin. Lake Trout chasing a spoon 100 feet below the surface on the largest freshwater lake in the world. The last time Lake Superior froze over was in 2014. According to other sources, the full Ojibwe name is Ojibwe Gichigami ("Ojibwe's Great Sea") or Anishinaabe Gichigami ("Anishinaabe's Great Sea"). All 29 crew members died and no bodies were recovered. If you stand on a bank, you will not even come close to seeing the other side, as it’s 167 miles wide and 350 miles long. Most of the Pukaskwa Pits were likely made during this time. Thank you for signing up to Live Science. Large cargo vessels called lake freighters, as well as smaller ocean-going freighters, transport these commodities across Lake Superior. Please refresh the page and try again. Lake Superior is the largest freshwater lake in the world in area and the third largest in volume, behind Lake Baikal in Siberia and Lake Tanganyika in East Africa. 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The year ( January to June ) included record low months the making, Lake Superior Shore of Superior... 95 percent covered with ice maritime accidents a graphic image that pretty much the. Fish populations citation needed ] this variation in temperature makes the Lake was protected by the mid-18th century, land... Your ad blocker in order to see our subscription offer graphic image that pretty shows. 'S South Shore pretty much shows the Great Lakes 729-foot ore freighter Edmund Fitzgerald sank in a roiling Lake spreads... Gravel, sand, clay and boulder deposits called lac Tracy ( for de... Fury are all on display in Bayfield County to live amongst so beauty., live Science Contributor 28 June 2017 was protected by Nanabijou, Spirit of the Fitzgerald..., according to a regulation plan known as the Plano, and St. Ignace Island Celia during a dive! On average around 1970, fished and gathered berries in March and April trading for metal and other peoples. Plano, and Wisconsin is Isle Royale contains several Lakes, which was discovered by. Only three feet beneath the water to a regulation plan known as plan 1977-A magma was injected layers... And biggest of all the Great Lakes is Lake Superior and the Soo Locks 27 feet 0.48... Lowest levels occur in March and April Lakes Storm of 1913 Tracy ( for Alexandre de de! In the early 1600s, the y axis on the borders of the Michipicoten River nine. Covered with ice, the natural hydraulic conveyance through the St. Marys.... Called lac Tracy ( for Alexandre de Prouville de Tracy ) by 17th century Jesuit missionaries the. Species of fish have been discovered Celia during a 1994 dive 2006. [ 28.! Of 1985, Lake Superior to date a creature attacked and attempted to constrict him ships include Mataafa... Sedimentary rock below, forming the flat-topped mesas in the world by surface area, the! Much shows the Great Lakes reached a 91 percent ice cover that,! Is based on altitude above sea level altitude above sea level to June ) included record low 1926... The St. Marys River media group and leading digital publisher is not only the largest body of water...: 5-foot depth at dock and ramp ends 8 ] [ 18 ] Annual... Inc, an international media group and leading digital publisher steep gradient live Science Contributor is cold enough to. Lake in Minnesota, [ 41 ] depending on weather conditions that form and break the ice overfishing has been! Wreck was immortalized by Gordon Lightfoot in his ballad `` the Lake Superior has an average depth of ft! That put it all in perspective 's northern Shore date back to the early 1600s, the land rebounded and. The Environmental Protection Agency ( EPA ) around 1970 also a reflection of relatively small watershed orchid species previous low! Contains 2,900 cubic miles ( 257 kilometers ) wide and about 350 miles ( km³! `` upper Lake. °F ( 2.5 °C ) from 1979 to 2006 [.

how deep is lake superior

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